This peer reviewed article looks, quantitatively, at the ways the transmission of criminal behaviour occurs by exploring specific times and frequencies of criminal behaviour as well as risk factors.
It explains that the lack of crime related risk factors for children whose parents have never been convicted, means they are much less likely to have convictions themselves than children whose parents had convictions before they were even born. Further, it notes that when their parents are convicted, children aged between 7 and 13 years, are slightly more likely to show criminal behaviour than children whose parents had been convicted at any other time in their lives. Essentially, this study shows that there is no key period of time for a parents conviction which heightens the likelihood of their children convicting. The results suggest the need for further study into intergenerational transmission of criminal behaviour that considers static and dynamic explanations and criminal environment and risk factors. For access via Taylor & Francis online see The Impact of Timing.
For open access via Researchgate see The Impact of Timing below: